The Burma Campaign

Kokine Battalion, Burma Frontier Force

At the end of 1939, a number of aerodromes were under construction in Burma and detachments had to be found for their protection.  These were at first found from different battalions in the Burma Frontier Force but in 1940 the Kokine Battalion was formed to carry out these specialised duties.

During 1940, the Chin Hills Battalion, Burma Frontier Force, raised and trained two companies of Chins for the Kokine Battalion.  One was enlisted from the Haka Subdivision and the other from the Whelgno Tribe.  The Chin Hills Battalion provided Governors Commissioned Officers (G.C.Os), N.C.Os and some trained sepoys for these companies.  The Haka Chin Company was raised and trained at Falam.  The Whelgno Chin Company was raised and trained at Haka, there being plenty of accommodation and excellent training facilities there.  Altogether the Chin Hills Battalion recruited 250 men for the Kokine Battalion in 1940 and a further 201 Chins, mostly from the Lushai Hills District, during 1941.[1]

The Kokine Battalion was approved initially by the Governor of Burma by a letter of 22nd July 1940.  The Battalion was to defend the landing grounds at Akyab, Moulmein, Tavoy, Mergui, Victoria Point and Lashio.[2]  Upon formation it was to consist of a Headquarters and Headquarters Company (at Rangoon), nine Landing Ground Companies, a Vickers Gun Company and a Training Company.  British Officers were authorised for the posts of Commandant and for three Assistant Commandants.  There seems to have been much toing and froing and further approvals and authorisation before the Battalion was finally approved for formation during November 1940.[3]  By way of a curious aside, the authorisation of the raising of the new Battalion was reported in The Ottawa Journal of Wednesday, 13th November 1940.[4]

The Commandant of the Kokine Battalion was Major R. Cook.[5]

The Battalion was reorganised in September 1941.   It then consisted of a Headquarters, nine Landing Ground Companies (including three Reserve Landing Ground Companies) and one Training Company. 

In November 1941, the detachment guarding the aerodrome at Victoria Point was under the supervision of Flight Lieutenant Booth-Russell, who had recently been appointed the Officer Commanding Troops, Victoria Point.[6] [7]

A further reorganisation was authorised on 15th December 1941 when a mortar platoon was added to the Landing Ground Companies.  Additionally, the Vickers Gun Company previously provided by the Kokine Battalion was in future to be provided by the Northern Shan States Battalion, BFF.[8]

Burma Frontier Force units and deployments in Tenasserim in December 1941 were:

- Maw Daung Pass F.F.2, Burma Frontier Force
- Mergui F.F.2, Burma Frontier Force
The Kokine Battalion, Burma Frontier Force, a detachment
Burma Frontier Force Aerodrome Guard, a detachment
- Moulmein HQ, 2nd Burma Infantry Brigade
Headquarters Tenasserim Area
The Kokine Battalion, Burma Frontier Force, detachment
- Mudon The Kokine Battalion, Burma Frontier Force, detachment[9]
- Tavoy The Kokine Battalion, Burma Frontier Force, detachment
Burma Frontier Force Aerodrome Guard, a detachment
- Thabawleik F.F.2, Burma Frontier Force
- Victoria Point The Kokine Battalion, Burma Frontier Force,  a platoon, withdrew to Mergui 13th December 1941[10]

Additional Aerodrome Guards were provided in the Shan States, at Lashio and Toungoo.  The Kokine Battalion Headquarters and reserves were located at Rangoon.[11]

The fall of Tavoy: 18th-19th January 1942

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This battalion was the first one to come into contact with the Japanese.  On 11th December 1941, given the isolated position of the location, the garrison at Victoria Point, a platoon of the Kokine Battalion, prepared to demolish the aerodrome as a prelude to being withdrawn by sea.  Following a Japanese air attack two days later, the troops left for Mergui by motor boat.[12]  The garrisons at Mergui, Tavoy and Moulmein were in turn forced to leave their posts as the Japanese advanced northwards through Tenasserim.  Some of these men did well, others badly.

The detachment of the Kokine Battalion at Tavoy put up a spirited defence on 18th January 1942, before being forced to withdraw, surrendering the aerodrome.

The Moulmein detachment of the Kokine Battalion fought an isolated action on 30th January 1942, under the command of Captain N.R. Watts of the 6th Battalion, The Burma Rifles.[13]   The detachment consisted of five platoons of infantry and one machine gun platoon, all Sikhs.  Also under command for the defence of the aerodrome in the counter-attack role was a company from the 8th Battalion, The Burma Rifles.  There were also four anti-aircraft guns.  However the Burma Rifles company (at the time “D” Company) was withdrawn from the aerodrome on 28th January, prior to the Japanese attack.  The aerodrome was first attacked from the North by a small Japanese party at around 07:30 hours.  This attack was beaten off easily however telephone communications with Brigade Headquarters failed, presumably cut by the Japanese.  There then followed a heavier attack and the detachment somehow managed to obtain artillery support from the Mountain Battery via Brigade Headquarters.  Supported by accurate artillery fire, the detachment held out against superior forces throughout the day until the capture at 16:30 of a hill overlooking the aerodrome.  This hill dominated the area and from it the Japanese were now able to support their attacks with heavy mortar and machine gun fire.  As darkness fell, the Japanese began to close in around the defenders and at 20:30 hours the detachment withdrew and made their way to Martaban, across the Salween River.[14]

The Defence of Moulmein

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Certainly the men were affected by the general morale in Tenasserim which was of an all round low level.  The departure of the unarmed R.A.F. staff from threatened landing grounds unquestionably had a demoralising effect on troops who often had no British Officers commanding them.  The garrisons of the landing grounds for the most part found their way back to the Headquarters of their Battalion in Rangoon, but numbers of the indigenous classes deserted to their homes.

After Tenasserim had been occupied by the Japanese, Kokine Battalion HQ remained at Rangoon carrying out duties in the city until evacuation was decided on.  A location statement for the 17th Indian Division dated 9th February lists a detachment of the Kokine Battalion at Kyaikto.[15]  On 21st February the 2nd Burma Brigade reported that the lorries belonging to F.F.3, Burma Frontier Force had been sent to Rangoon to help the Kokine Battalion move out of the city.[16]  The strength of the Kokine Battalion in Rangoon in February-March 1942 is described as “one Company”.[17] 

On 3rd March, the 17th Indian Division issued an order for the 16th Indian Brigade to move to Tharrawaddy and to take over command of all troops in the Prome-Tharrawaddy-Okkan area.  These included a detachment of the Kokine Battalion at Prome.[18]

The Indian elements of the Kokine Battalion, BFF, which at that time included a number of Indian personnel withdrawn from landing grounds in Tenasserim, together with Battalion Headquarters, the records of the Burma Frontier Force, elements of the Burma Military Police and F.F.7, were evacuated by sea to India from Rangoon on 7th March 1942.[19]  The Burmese elements of the Kokine Battalion, around one third of the total strength, withdrew from Rangoon with the Army.[20]

The defence of Moulmein and environs (airfield bottom right corner)

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It seems at least one other element of the Kokine Battalion, BFF remained on duty in March 1942, guarding the satellite landing ground one mile North of Kyungon, North of Toungoo.  The company was commanded by Captain D.K. Milligan and together with F.F.3 and the 23rd Mountain Battery was involved in a “brisk battle” with the Japanese near the landing ground on 16th March 1942.[21] [22] 

On 1st April 1942, F.F.1 having crossed over the Pegu Yomas from the Toungoo area to the Prome front, encountered a “Karen Column” of the Kokine Battalion, without transport, at Paukkaung, on the Oktwin-Prome road.  These troops joined F.F.1 in the march northwards via Shwebandaw to rejoin the 1st Burma Division.[23]  Detachments of the Battalion were listed as Line of Communication Defence Troops in the order of battle for 1st April 1942.[24]  The Burmese elements of the Kokine Battalion from Rangoon continued the withdrawal northwards with the Army by way of Tharrawaddy, Prome, Magwe, and Meiktila and eventually faded away as the men deserted or were discharged to return to their families.[25]

Meanwhile, the elements evacuated from Rangoon arrived at Calcutta around 11th or 12th March from where they travelled on to the Elephant Falls Camp, near Shillong.  At the camp and under the command of Lt.Colonel Cook were the Kokine Battalion, the two columns of F.F.7 and elements of the Burma Military Police.

 

The Kokine Garrison Battalion, Burma Frontier Force

The Kokine Garrison Battalion, Burma Frontier Force was formed on 20th April 1942 at the Elephant Falls Camp, near Shillong in India.[26]  It was formed by amalgamating elements of the Kokine Battalion and F.F.7, Burma Frontier Force.  Although it remained under the administrative command of the Inspector General, Burma Frontier Force, the Battalion was placed at the disposal of the Indian Army.[27]   Cook became the Commanding Officer of the new Garrison Battalion.  His Second-in-Command was Major G.R.F. Jenney, recently the Commanding Officer of F.F.7.[28]  Captain C.A. McDowall, a column commander with F.F.7, was Adjutant and commander of 'A' Company, made up of mostly the Kachins of F.F.7.[29]  The Chins of F.F.7 had been quietly separated under Captain H.E.W. Braund, the second F.F.7 column commander, to prepare for their new role with the Chin Levies.[30]  Subsequently, on 9th May, Braund and his Chins left Shillong for Gauhati and on to Dimapur.[31]  Also present at the Camp were a number of Burma Frontier Force soldiers and elements of the Burma Military Police however whilst these remained under Lt. Colonel Cook's administrative command the men do not appear to have been absorbed into the Kokine Garrison Battalion.

The Battalion was short of personnel and could only form a Headquarters and three weak rifle companies.  Equipment was also lacking and on 5th May 1942 reported to G.H.Q. that it was still short of rifles, boots, clothing and equipment of all kinds.  A few worn out trucks had been received but were found to have been cannibalised by other units and were without tools.

In May 1942 detachments were sent to Assam to take up internal security, guard and escort duties.  On 17th May the under strength 'A' Company, made up of Gurkha riflemen, left Elephant Falls camp for Tinsukia in the Assam Hills, coming under the command of Headquarters Northern Assam Area.  A second company, 'D' Company under the command of Captain J.A. Shaw, was initially ordered to Jorhat and left the Camp on 23rd May.[32]   However it was diverted to Tinsukia.  Captain McDowall followed to assume command of 'A' Company, handing over his duties as Adjutant to Captain E.J. Polglase.[33] 

On 15th May orders were received to send two platoons to Ledo to take up guard duties under the command of the local battalion.  The move, planned for 2nd May was postponed and it was not until 4th June that the detachment, all Sikhs from 'C' Company, left Elephant Falls Camp, not for Ledo but for Mariani, under the command of Subedar Kirpal Singh.  Captain C.E. Mountain followed on 8th June to take command of the company.[34]  Major Jenney took a small detachment making up the Battalion Advanced Headquarters to Ledo, leaving the camp on 3rd June.

Throughout this period the Battalion suffered many desertions by Kachin soldiers anxious to return to their homes.  Burma Army Command then issued an order that all Kachins who wished to return to Burma were to be allowed to do so, taking their rifles.  Those with 'A' Company were allowed to leave on returning to Burma in the Ledo area, on 17th June.  This seems to have resulted in the temporary disbandment of 'A' Company.  A further 24 Kachins, being Headquarters personnel at Shillong, were also allowed to leave on 18th June.  A large party of Chins under the command of Captain Braund had discretely left Shillong earlier in May to join the Chin Levies.  Sanction was given on 18th June for the remaining Chins at Shillong to move to Falam to join the Chin Hills Battalion but they did not leave until 11th July.

On 20th June a platoon of Gurkhas under the command of Havildar Nar Bahadur was sent to Gauhati for garrison duties with the 21st Reinforcement Camp.  On 30th June orders were received at Shillong from the Assistant Adjutant and Quarter Master General, Assam Line of Communications Area detailing the redistribution of the Battalion.  One company was to remain at Tinsukia whilst one company less two platoons was to remain at Mariani.  One platoon was to stay at Gauhati and the other at Pandu.  The detachments at Ledo and Margherita were to join the Battalion H.Q. and details from Shillong and move to Hoshiarpur, the main base of the Burma Army, on receipt of orders from the Assam Line of Communications Area Headquarters.

On 1st July one Kachin Viceroy's Commissioned Officer and 46 Kachin Other Ranks were taken back on into the Battalion.  On 10th July the V.C.O. and 27 of the Other Ranks left Assam for Ranchi under the command of Captain McDowall.  The remainder were to follow on however they were recalled to Shillong.  Of those who accompanied Captain McDowall to Ranchi 17 were transferred to"special duties" at New Delhi on 18th July under the orders of G.H.Q. India.  on 23rd July an order was received requesting that one platoon be provided to relieve a detachment of the Assam Rifles who were acting as escort to a Mr C.W. North who was responsible for maintaining the civil administration of the Maingkwan area.  A detachment of 26 Burma Military Police left Shillong for the Hoshiarpur Depot on 29th July and were struck of strength of the Elephant Falls Camp Details.  On 31st July the Advance Headquarters party returned to Shillong from Margherita.  That same day an order was received by Battalion Headquarters from H.Q. Burma Frontier Force instructing that two platoons of Gurkhas were to be provided to act as escort to a Mr T. Atkinson of the Indian Civil Service on tour of the Somra Tract.

In August further parties of B.F.F. and B.M.P. men were sent from the Camp details at Shillong to Hoshiarpur.  There were delays organising the Somra Tract expedition for which two Gurkha platoons had been requested at the end of July.  The Battalion had responded to the request by stating that the men, to be found from 'B' Company at Tinsukia, were not available.  A reinforcement party of mainly Gurkhas was sent from Hoshiarpur shortly after 4th August with the intention of reinforcing 'B' Company.  It seems that the two platoons were then despatched to escort Mr Atkinson.  The Battalion also administered the movement of a large party of Chins and Lushais, many of whom were former Burma Frontier Force men, from Lohardaga to the Imphal area.  The small party of Kachins remaining with the Battalion in Shillong were finally sent on to Hoshiarpur on 8th August.

The dispositions of the Battalion from early August appear to have been:

- Battalion Headquarters - Elephant Falls Camp, Shillong
- 'A' Company - disbanded in June 1942
- 'B' Company (Gurkhas) - one platoon at Tinsukia, Assam and two platoons on special duty with Mr T Atkinson, I.C.S.
- 'C' Company (Sikhs and Gurkhas) -  two platoons at Mariani and one platoon at Pandu, acting as Employment Platoon to H.Q. 202 Area
- 'D' Company (Punjabi Mussalmen) - Dimapur - "the Manipur Road" guarding petrol and lubricant stores.

On 20th August the Brigadier commanding the Base Sub Area in the Imphal-Dimapur area wrote of his concern over the strength of the 'weak' 'D' Company guarding petrol and lubricant stores on the Manipur Road.  The company had arrived in the area on 4th August and has since lost a third of its original strength of 79 men to sickness.  Only three men had not suffered malarial fever in the preceding three months.  The sick were evacuated to hospital in India and when fit were discharged to the Burma Frontier Force Camp at Hoshiarpur and thus did not return to the Company.  No replacements or reinforcements had been received.  The concerned Brigadier recommended the Company be relieved as soon as possible.

On 6th September the Major-General in command of H.Q. 202 Line of Communication Area proposed that the Battalion Headquarters was not required in Shilong.  The companies of the Battalion were operating virtually as independent garrison companies and thus the Battalion Headquarters had a purely administrative role and was therefore superfluous.  It was recommended that Battalion headquarters be sent to the Burma Frontier Force centre at Hoshiarpur.  It was also recognised that there were no troops available to relieve the three companies so that they too might be sent to Hoshiarpur, no matter how preferable this might be.

Lt. Colonel Cook left Shillong on one month's war leave on 25th September.  Major A.Smith joined the Battalion on 19th September and took over as Commanding Officer in Cook's absence.[35]

Sometime in late 1942 the Battalion completed the move to Hoshiarpur.  By this time plans for the reorganisation of the Burma Army had been made and the Kokine Garrison Battalion was earmarked to become the 2nd Garrison Battalion, part of the newly formed Burma Regiment.  On 27th September the Battalion was described as formed and ready and awaiting reformation.  Although the date given for the reorganisation was 1st October 1942 it appears to have taken until 1st July 1943 before the reorganisation was sanctioned officially.[36]

 17 November 2017



[1] “History of the Chin Hills Battalion Military Police”, 1894-1953, Mss Eur E250  

[2] “Burma Frontier Force”, WO 106/3673

[3] WO 203/5694

[4] www.newspapers.com

[5] Robert Cook, born, 11th November 1893.  As a Trooper, served with C Squadron, 1/2nd Surrey Yeomanry in the United Kingdom, Gallipoli, Egypt and the Western Front, 1914 to March 1905.  Served in ranks, 3 years, 245 days, mobilised with the Territorial Force from the Indian Army Reserve of Officers, 1914 to 28th May 1918.  Served at Gallipoli, May 1915 to January 1916; Egypt, January 1916 to 18th March 1916; France and Belgium, March 1916 to November 1917.  Commissioned as 2nd Lt., Indian Army Reserve of Officers, 29th May 1918.  Served with the 2nd Battalion, 8th Rajputs, 4th October 1918.  Served with the 2nd Battalion, 66th Punjabis in India and Mesopotamia, from 11th May 1919.  Promoted to Lieutenant, 29th May 1919.  Appointed to the Indian Army as 2nd Lt., 18th September 1919, with seniority from 1st March 1919.  Promoted to Lieutenant, 20th December 1919.  Served Waziristan, 1922-23.  Attached to the 15th Punjab Regiment, 20th January 1922.  R.T.O. (Regimental Training Officer), 6th November 1922 to 31st March 1924.  Promoted to Captain, 20th December 1924.  Served with the Chin Hills Battalion, Burma Military Police, 1926 to April 1905.  Served Burma (Saya San Rebellion), 1930-32.  Served as Staff Captain, Indian Army, Rangoon Brigade Area, 12th July 1931 to 30th June 1934.  Mentioned in Despatches for distinguished service in Burma, as Staff Captain, Rangoon Brigade Area, gazetted, 20th December 1932.  Promoted to Brevet Major, 1st July 1934.  Commandant, the Southern Shan States Battalion, Burma Frontier Force, 3rd July 1934 to 23rd May 1940.  Promoted to substantive Major, 20th December 1936.  As Major, appointed Commandant, the Kokine Battalion, Burma Frontier Force, 23rd May 1940 (battalion may not have formed until November 1940).  Evacuated from Rangoon with Indian elements of the Kokine Battalion, BFF, and F.F.7, 7th March 1942.  Described as Lt. Colonel, Rangoon Battalion, Burma Military Police, in command of a camp at Elephant Falls, near Shillong, India, March 1942.  Officer Commanding, Elephant Falls Camp, Shillong, India where elements of the Kokine Battalion, F.F.7 and Burma Military Police were gathered.  Commanding Officer of the newly organised Kokine Garrison Battalion, Burma Frontier Force from 20th April 1942.  Died, 1st January 1984 ("War Services of British and Indian Officers of the Indian Army 1941", Savannah (2004); Ancestry.co.uk; “Distinctly I Remember”, H. Braund, Wren (1972); British Army List; Indian Army List; Indian Army List 1921; IOR L/WS/1/1313; WO 203/5694; ; War Diary of the Kokine Garrison Battalion, WO 172/691; IWM Interview, IWM Collections).

[6] Stanley Booth-Russell joined the evacuees from Victoria Point and reached Mergui.  He later took a reconnaissance party back to Victoria Point.  He survived the subsequent Burma Campaign and was forced to relinquish his commission on 28th May 1942 due to ill health.  He died on 22nd October 1943 and is buried at the Calcutta (Bhowanipore) Cemetery, Kolkatta (London Gazette; CWGC; “Mergui and the Japanese Invasion, December 1941-January1942” by F. Yarnold, District Commissioner Mergui, WO 203/5691).

[7] “Mergui and the Japanese Invasion, December 1941-January1942” by F. Yarnold, District Commissioner Mergui, WO 203/5691

[8] IOR M/3/1064

[9] War Diary 2nd Burma Brigade, WO 172/548

[10] “Indian Armed Forces in World War II, The Retreat from Burma 1941-42”

[11] WO 203/5694

[12] “Indian Armed Forces in World War II, The Retreat from Burma 1941-42”

[13] Norman Reginald Watts.  Commissioned to the General List from Cadet, as 2nd Lt. (189641), 28th April 1941. As an officer of the 6th Burma Rifles wrote a personal narrative of operations in Tavoy (and on Moulmein aerodrome) January 1942.  War substantive Lieutenant, 1st October 1942.  As Lieutenant (acting Captain) awarded the Military Cross, gazetted 28th October 1942, for his actions as Officer Commanding Aerodrome Defences, Moulmein, the citation follows:

Division: 17th Indian Division
Date and Place of Recommendation:     MOULMEIN, 30-31 Jan ’42.      
Action for which recommended :-          

Lieut Watts was O.C. Aerodrome Defences at MOULMEIN during the action/30/31 Jan ’42.
Despite frequent attacks on his position by superior enemy forces throughout the day, this officer by his personal example of coolness and leadership succeeded in holding a very extended position from more than twelve hours, withdrawing at night, only when ordered to do so.  He then made a most courageous single handed attempt to destroy a damaged Blenheim which was lying some hundreds of yards distant in thick jungle.  He desisted only when he found himself within the enemy lines, from which he managed to escape, and reported himself for duty seven days later, after having spent six days in enemy occupied territory.

Recommended by: O.C. 6 Burma Rifles

Bde Comd’s remarks and recommendation:  Forwarded and recommended.  His O.C. also brought his name to my notice for gallant conduct during the operations at TAVOY.        

Signed By: V.G. Smyth, Maj General, Comd 17 Ind Div; L.J. Hutton, Lt.Gen [Commander Burma Army].

(London Gazette; “Indian Armed Forces in World War II, The Retreat from Burma 1941-42”; British Army List; WO 373/30/172).

[14] "Personal Narrative of Operations - Operations on Moulmein Aerodrome", Captain N.R. Watts, WO 203/5691 and also quoted in “Indian Armed Forces in World War II, The Retreat from Burma 1941-42

[15] War Diary of the 17th Indian Infantry Division, WO 172/475.

[16] War Diary 2nd Burma Brigade, WO 172/548

[17] “Indian Armed Forces in World War II, The Retreat from Burma 1941-42”

[18] War Diary of the 17th Indian Infantry Division, WO 172/475.

[19] War Diary of the Kokine Garrison Battalion, WO 172/691.

[20] IOR L/WS/1/1313; WO 203/5690; WO 203/5694.

[21] “Burma Frontier Force; Short History of F.F.3”, Major J.H. Turner, WO 203/5702.

[22] David Kennedy Milligan born, 1917.  Sailed to Rangoon from Liverpool on S.S. "Prome", profession listed as Burma Forest Service, 7th October 1939.  Commissioned to the General List from Cadet at OCTU as 2nd Lt. (189612), 28th April 1941.  Promoted war substantive Lieutenant; promoted temporary Captain, 14th March 1942.  As Captain, commanded a company of the Kokine Battalion, Burma Frontier Force, guarding the satellite airfield one mile North of Kyungon, North of Toungoo, 16th March 1942.  Second-in-Command of F.F.9, Burma Frontier Force, April-May 1942.  As temporary Major, served with the Chin Hills Levies, September 1942 to 9th November 1943.  Died on "the withdrawal from Falam", possibly buried by the Japanese near Mangkheng, near Falam, 9th November 1943.  "Sadly burned alive by the Japanese in Burma" whilst a POW in an unknown POW camp, 9th November 1943.  As Major, Indian Army Unattached List, died in Burma, 9th November 1943.  From a memorial in Dunscore Churchyard, Dumfriesshire; "Major, Burma Frontier Force, Younger son of Fergus Milligan of Merkland.  Killed in Action in Burma 9th Nov. 1943, aged 28 years.", 9th November 1943 ("Distinctly I Remember", H. Braund, Wren (1972); British Army List; Burma Frontier Force; Short History of F.F.3 by Major J.H. Turner, WO 203/5702; Scott papers; CWGC; FindMyPast; Dunscore Parish Gravestones; Rhodesian Services Organisation Sep 2011; London Gazette).

[23] War Diary of the 1st Burma Infantry Division, WO 172/447.

[24] Indian Armed Forces in World War II, The Retreat from Burma 1941-42”

[25] IOR L/WS/1/1313; WO 203/5690; WO 203/5694.

[26] Unless noted separately, the history of the Kokine Garrison Battalion is based on “War Diary of the Kokine Garrison Battalion, WO 172/691.

[27] IOR L/WS/1/1313

[28] George Robert Frederick Jenney, born, 21st February 1906.  Commissioned as 2nd Lt. to the Unattached List, 31st January 1929.  As Captain, attached to the 11th Sikh Regiment from 22nd February 1931.  Appointed to the Indian Army as 2nd Lt. (AI 252), 22nd February 1931.  Promoted to Lieutenant, 30th April 1932.  Served North-West Frontier of India (Mohmand), 1933.  Served North-West Frontier, 1937.  Seconded and served as Assistant Commandant with the 1st Rangoon Battalion, Burma Military Police, 22nd November 1937.  Promoted to Captain, 31st January 1938.  Served with the 7th (Burma Police) Battalion, The Burma Rifles from the battalion's formation, 1st November 1940.  Served as acting Major, 1st January 1941 to 31st March 1941.  Temporary Major from 1st April 1941.  Adjutant, the 7th (Burma Police) Battalion, The Burma Rifles, January 1941 to September ? 1941.  Commanded the Junior Leaders Training School at Kutkai, September? 1941 to January 1942.  Formed F.F.7, Burma Frontier Force at Pywabye and became the Commanding Officer, January 1942 to March 1942.  Evacuated by sea from Rangoon to Calcutta with F.F.7, Burma Frontier Force, early March 1942.  Appointed second-in-command of the Kokine Garrison Battalion, Burma Frontier Force on formation from elements of the Kokine Battalion and F.F.7, Burma Frontier Force. 20th April 1942.  As temporary Lt. Colonel, Commanding Officer of the 2nd Battalion, The Sikh Light Infantry, 1945 to 1946.  As Captain (temporary Lt. Colonel), promoted to Major, 31st January 1946.  As Major, second in command of the 2nd Battalion, The Sikh Light Infantry, January 1946 to 1st April 1946.  As war substantive Major, temporary Lt. Colonel, and later, Major, served with The Sikh Light Infantry, April 1946 to October 1946.  Granted the honorary rank of Lt. Colonel, 8th December 1948.  As Major (honorary Lt. Colonel) (45036) from Special List (ex Indian Army) retired, made Major, retaining the honorary rank of Lt. Colonel, in the Devon Regiment, Regular Army Reserve of Officers, 1st January 1949.  As Major (honorary Lt. Colonel) (45036), Regular Army Reserve of Officers retired, having exceeded the age limit, 2nd September 1959.  Died, 1st January 1986 ("Distinctly I Remember", H. Braund, Wren (1972); "History of The 7th Burma Police Bn: The Burma Rifles, 1940-1942"; "M&R, A Regimental History of the Sikh Light Infantry, 1941-1947", Hookway, J (ed, Backington (1999); "War Services of British and Indian Officers of the Indian Army 1941", Savannah (2004); British Army List; Burma Defence Services List July 1941; Indian Army List; London Gazette; War Diary of the Kokine Garrison Battalion, WO 172/691).

[29] Christopher Arnold McDowall, born, 21st April 1914.  Commissioned as 2nd Lt., ABRO (ABRO 50), 10th November 1939.  Attended the first course held at the Maymyo Officer Cadet Training Unit, 1939.  Appointed to the Burma Frontier Force, 1940.  Appointed Assistant Commandant, the Bhamo Battalion, Burma Frontier Force, 8th August 1940.  Worked for Blackwood Ralli & Company Limited, rice merchants, pre-war.  Promoted to Lieutenant, 19th October 1941.  As Captain, Column Commander, F.F.7, Burma Frontier Force, February 1942 to 20th April 1942.  Temporary Captain from 14th March 1942.  Served with the Kokine Garrison Battalion, Burma Frontier Force as Commander 'A' Company (Kachins) and Adjutant, 20th April 1942 to 1st October 1942.  Appointed Staff Captain, the 2nd Burma Brigade, 1st October 1942.  Attended Quetta Staff College, January 1943 to July 1943.  Transferred to the Headquarters, Indian Expeditionary Force in Bombay from 22nd August 1943.  Served on the Headquarters of XXXIII Indian Corps as Deputy Assistant Quartermaster General (M), Military Landing Officer (M.L.O.), 1943 to 1st January 1944.  Attached to the Headquarters of the 36th British Infantry Division, 1944.  Appointed Assistant Quartermaster General (Plans), XXXIII Indian Corps at Poona, February 1944.  Appointed Assistant Adjutant & Quartermaster General, Headquarters of the 19th Indian Infantry Division, 14th November 1944.  As 2nd Lt. (war substantive Major, temporary Lieutenant Colonel), attached to Headquarters XXXIII Indian Corps, awarded O.B.E., gazetted, 13th September 1945, for which the recommendation reads:

Corps:  33 IND CORPS
Unit:     A.B.R.O., lately attached H.Q. 33 Ind Corps as A.Q.M.G. (Now A.A.&Q.M.G. 19 Ind Div)

Date of Recommendation:                     23rd December 1944    

Action for which recommended :-           ASSAM – BURMA FRONTIER, 16 August to 15 Nov 1944.

This officer has shown outstanding ability and devotion to duty during the operations on the TIDDIM road and down the KABAW valley.  On him has rested the responsibility for all supplies reaching the forward troops and by his carefull staff work and never flagging energy he has carried out all his duties with notable success.         

Recommended by:  Lt. Gen. Sir M.G.N. STOPFORD, K.B.E., C.B., D.S.O., M.C., Commander, 33 Ind Corps       

Signed By: Lt. Gen W.J. Slim, G.O.C. Fourteenth Army; Lt. Gen  [unreadable] , C-in-C Allied Land Forces SEA.

As temporary Lt. Colonel, The Burma Regiment,  Mentioned in Despatches, gazetted, 10th January 1946.  Employed Bombay Burma Trading Corporation, 1946 to 1961 ("Some Were Lucky, The War in and Around Burma as Seen By C.A. McDowall", MSS EUR C417; "Distinctly I Remember", H. Braund, Wren (1972); ABRO Appointments, Anglo-Burmese Library; Burma Army List; Burma Army List 1943; Burma Army List October 1940; London Gazette; Thacker's Directory 1941; WO 373/80/20; War Diary of the Kokine Garrison Battalion, WO 172/691).

[30] Harold Ernest Wilton Braund, born, 26th November 1913.  Joined Steel Brothers in London, February 1932.  Sailed for Burma, June 1934.  Joined the Militia Company, The King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry as Cadet, 21st November 1940.  Emergency Commission from Cadet to the General List as 2nd Lt. (189597), 28th April 1941.  Joined the Northern Shan States Battalion, Burma Frontier Force at Lashio as Assistant Commandant, 5th May 1941.  Column Commander, F.F.7, January 1942 to May 1942.  War substantive Lieutenant, temporary Captain, 14th March 1942.  Served with the Chin Levies, May 1942 to April 1945.  Promoted war substantive Captain, 1st April 1943.  As Captain, Chin Hills Levies, awarded the Military Cross, gazetted 16th December 1943 , his citation follows:

Unit:                 Chin Hills Levies
Brigade:            Chin Hills Levies
Corps:              4th Corps

Date of Recommendation:           26th January 1943      

Action for which recommended :-           Captain H.E.W. BRAUND has served in the Chin Levies since May 1942 and has always been stationed in the F.D.L’s which he has never left during that period.

Of late months he has been in constant contact with the enemy, and has led many offensive patrols into the KALEMYO Area.

On December 24th 1942 he led a small Levy raid on TAHAN, inflicting a number of casualties on the enemy, although considerably outnumbered.

He has been indefatigable in his efforts to make a success of the Chin Levies under his Command [sic], and by his great personal courage and example, has greatly increased the morale and offensive spirit of the Levies, during a very difficult period.

This officer is highly deserving of the Award of the Order of The British Empire Medal (Military). [Amended to the Military Cross]

Recommended by:  Area Commander, Chin Hills Levies 

Signed By:  G.A.P. Scones, Lieutenant-General Commanding IV Corps; N. Irwin, Lieut-General, General Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Eastern Army

Retired from the Army, January 1946.  Married Maxine Velma Strong, Bombay, 1946.  Worked for Steel Brothers associate, The Attock Oil Company in Rawalpindi, 1946 to 1966?.  Awarded the O.B.E, 13th June 1959.  Retired to Australia, late 1960s?.  Died, 1st January 1988 ("Distinctly I Remember", H. Braund, Wren (1972); Ancestry.co.uk; British Army List; Burma Army List 1943; FindMyPast; London Gazette).

[31] “Distinctly I Remember: a personal story of Burma”, Braund, H. E. W., Wren (1972)

[32] James Alexander Shaw born, 13th April 1919.  Commissioned to the Unattached List for the Indian Army as 2nd Lieutenant, attached to the 1st battalion, The Leicestershire Regiment, 1st July 1939.  Appointed to the Indian Army, transferred to the Indian Establishment, 30th January 1940.  As 2nd Lieutenant, attached to the 2nd Battalion, 2nd Punjab Regiment, 30th January 1940.  Promoted to Lieutenant, 1st January 1941.  Acting Captain to 9th June 1941.  Temporary Captain from 10th June 1941.  Temporary Captain, 29th November 1941 to 21st April 1942.  As Lieutenant, temporary Captain, Commander 'D' Company of the Kokine Garrison Battalion, Burma Frontier Force, 24th April 1942 to 16th September 1942.  Ordered to revert to regimental duty with the 10th Battalion, 2nd Punjab Regiment, en route to the 1st Battalion, 22nd August 1942.  Relinquished his posting with the Kokine Garrison Battalion, 16th September 1942 (British Army List; Indian Army List 1939, 1940, 1943, 1945; War Diary of the Kokine Garrison Battalion, WO 172/691).

[33] Edward Basil Julian (Julyan) Polglase born, Falmouth, 18th August 1905.  Educated St. Peter's College, Radley, March 1920 to February 1924.  Worked for Steel Brothers, general staff, 1926 to 1941?.  As a "merchant's assistant", travelled to Rangoon from Liverpool on the SS "Oxfordshire", 10th September 1926.  Served as Captain, The Rangoon Battalion, Burma Auxiliary Force, Summer 1940 to 25th October 1941.  Emergency Commission as 2nd Lt. to the General List (217659), 26th October 1941.  War substantive Lieutenant, temporary Captain from 4th April 1942.  Served with F.F.9, Burma Frontier Force, April 1942.  As temporary Captain, attached to F.F.2, Burma Frontier Force following disbandment of F.F.9, April 1942.  As Captain, served with the Kokine Garrison Battalion, Burma Frontier Force, from April/May 1942.  Served as Adjutant of the Kokine Garrison Battalion, Burma Frontier Force from 25th May 1942.  After the war, returned to work for Steel Brothers, 1st September 1945.  As war substantive Lieutenant, relinquished his commission with the honorary rank of Captain, 7th March 1946.  Editor of the Steel Brothers house magazine, post-war.  Died, Hove, East Sussex, 13th November 1976 ("Calling to Mind, Being Some Account of the First Hundred Years (1870 to 1970) of Steel Brothers and Company Limited", Braund H.E., Pergamon (1975); "Notes on B.F.F.", F.F.2, by Major D. Mostert, WO 203/5700;  (Notes on BFF, WO 203/5700); War Diary of the Kokine Garrison Battalion, WO 172/691; Burma Army List; Burma Army List 1943; FindMyPast; British Army Officers 1939-1945; London Gazette; St. Peter's College, Radley - Register; Thacker's Directory; FindMyPast).

[34] Cyril Elliott Mountain born around 1895.  Worked as an electrical engineer, before World War One.  Attested to the Royal Engineers as a Sapper, 8th December 1914.  Commissioned as Lieutenant, Army in India Reserve of Officers, 24th September 1925, with seniority from 13th February 1923.  Appointed as Lieutenant to the Royal Artillery Special List, Territorial Army (97256), 2nd September 1939.  Appointed as Lieutenant, to the East Lancashire Regiment, Territorial Army from the Royal Artillery Special List, 24th June 1940.  As acting Captain, joined the Kokine Garrison Battalion, Burma Frontier Force, 1st May 1942.  Appointed as Lieutenant, Royal Engineers, 7th July 1943.  Travelled from Liverpool on board S.S. "Britannic" to take up permanent residence in Egypt, departure, 4th January 1947.  As Lieutenant, having exceeded the age limit, retired with the honorary rank of Captain, 1st September 1948.  Died in East Africa, 25th January 1954 (Ancestry.co.uk; London Gazette; War Diary of the Kokine Garrison Battalion, WO 172/691).

[35] Andrew Smith born, 6th February 1901.  Commissioned as 2nd Lt. to the Unattached List, 24th December 1920.  Served as Platoon Commander, attached to the 2nd Battalion, The Royal Irish Regiment, 4th April 1921 to 29th March 1922.  Served as a Company Officer, the 79th Carnatic Infantry, 30th March 1922 to 11th November 1923.  Appointed to the Indian Army (AI 983), attached to the 79th Carnatic Infantry (from 1923 the 3rd Battalion, 3rd Madras Regiment), 4th April 1922.  Served as a Company Officer, attached to the 10th Battalion, 3rd Madras Regiment, 21st November 1923 to 20th January 1924.  Served as Company Officer, the 1st Battalion, 20th Burma Rifles, 21st January 1924 to 14th March 1928.  Served as Quartermaster, the 1st Battalion, 20th Burma Rifles, 15th March 1928 to 31st December 1930.  Served as Quartermaster, the 1st Battalion, 20th Burma Rifles, Taiping, 1st January 1931 to 13th June 1931.  Served as Officiating Company Commander, the 10th Battalion, 20th Burma Rifles, 14th June 1931 to 2nd November 1931.  Served as Officiating Quartermaster, the 10th Battalion, 20th Burma Rifles, 3rd November 1931 to 31st December 1931.  Served as Company Commander, the 10th Battalion, 20th Burma Rifles, 1st January 1932 to 23rd January 1932.  Served as Quartermaster, the 1st Battalion, 20th Burma Rifles, Taiping, 24th January 1932 to 31st December 1932.  Promoted to Captain, 25th October 1932.  Served with the 1st Battalion, 20th Burma Rifles, 1st January 1933 to 31st October 1935.  Transferred to the Special Unemployed List, with effect from 1st November 1935.  Arrived from the United Kingdom at Shillong, India for duty with the Regimental Centre, 10th Gurkha Rifles., 2nd October 1939.  Captain, Special Unemployed List, attached The Burma Rifles, April 1940.  Appointed to the Burma Defence Force, 1st November 1940.  As Major, Assistant Commandant, the 2nd Rangoon Battalion, Burma Military Police, January 1941 to May 1942.  Promoted to Major, 26th October 1941.  As Major, the Bhamo Battalion, Burma Frontier Force, May 1942.  Appointed as Second-in-Command to the Kokine Garrison Battalion, Burma Frontier Force, 19th September 1942.  Major, Special Unemployed List, attached The Burma Rifles, 14th January 1943.  Major, Military Employ, attached The Burma Rifles, 1943-44.  Appointed Officiating Commandant, the 26th Garrison Battalion, Burma Regiment, and granted rank of acting Lt. Colonel, 8th March 1945.  Appointed temporary Lt. Colonel with effect from 8th July 1945.  Relinquished post of Officiating Commandant, the 26th Garrison Battalion, Burma Regiment, 2nd August 1945.  Reassumed appointment of Officiating Commandant, the 26th Garrison Battalion, Burma Regiment, and granted rank of temporary Lt. Colonel, 6th September 1945.  Proceeded on leave to the United Kingdom, 16th November 1945.  Reassumed appointment of Officiating Commandant, the 26th Garrison Battalion, Burma Regiment, 11th February 1946.  Commander No.5 H & E Centre, 18th May 1946 to 31st January 1946.  Major (acting Lt. Colonel), Military Employ, Special Unemployed List, 1946.  Posted to the Burma Regimental Centre, 1st February 1947.  Posted as Records Officer, Burma Regimental Centre, 1st February 1947.  Appointed as Records Officer, Burma Regimental Centre, 30th April 1947.  As Major (AI 983) granted the honorary rank of Lt. Colonel on reverting to the Special Unemployed List, 5th April 1948  (Burma Army List; Burma Defence Services List July 1941; Indian Army List; Indian Army List 1921; Indian Army List April 1940; Indian Army List April 1943; Indian Army List October 1943; Indian Army List April 1944; Indian Army List October 1944; Indian Army List October 1946; IOR/L/MIL/14/2729; London Gazette; War Diary of the Kokine Garrison Battalion, WO 172/691; “Report of Burma Military Police” by Major H. Chappell, WO 203/5693).

[36] IOR L/WS/1/1313